Before doing this activity you may need to read the text you will find at the end
|(be) You ____________ Phill Lewis|
|(love) I ____________________ Jill|
|(drink) Mark __________________________ wine|
|(live) We ____________________ in Moscow|
|(have lived) She ________________________ in Barcelona|
|(can) Sorry, I __________ go with you.|
|(will) I __________ go to Mexico this summer|
|(have finished) I ________________________________ this book yet|
|(should) You __________________ talk to her like that|
|(eat) She ______________________ fruit|
|(like) She ________________________ your sweater|
|(have) I ____________________ a car|
|(may) I ______________ see you tomorrow|
|(must) You ______________ do that here|
|(listen) You ________________________ to me when I'm talking|
|(might) I don't know, she __________________ be Susan.|
|(read) We ____________________ books|
|(write) They ______________________ letters|
|(walk) He ________________________ to school, he goes by bus.|
|(be) She __________ my sister|
|(have got) I ______________________ many friends here|
|(sleep) I ______________________ at night|
|(be) I____________ your father|
|(could) I didn't pass the exam because I ________________ finish on time|
|(would) I ________________ like to be there at this moment|
It is very important to know which verbs are normal and which are special, because the sentence structure is different in each case.
They can do everything, they never need help. Special verbs are auxiliaries and modals, and there are only 13:
auxiliaries: to be, have, do
modals: can/could, will/would, shall/should, may/might, must, ought to
Normal negative forms (some verbs are not normally contracted): [am not, aren't, isn't], [haven't, hasn't], [do, doesn't] // can't, couldn't, won't, wouldn't, shall not, shouldn't, may not, might not, mustn't, oughtn't to
All the other verbs are normal. They can only build an affirmative sentence. For all the other constructions they need to use DO
Special verbs follow the rule of the three NO's: No -S, No To, No Do
|SPECIAL VERBS||compare:||NORMAL VERBS|
||I can / she can||I want / She wants|
|| I can walk / to can
||I want to go / to want|
||you can / you can’t / can you?||you want / you don't want / do you want?|
❶- No S: Special verbs don't add an -S for the third person singular in the simple present tense. The forms is, has are irregular forms, but still, they are not bes (be + S) or haves (have + S)
❷- No To: Special verbs are never followed by an "infinitive with to" (exception: ought to), and they don't have an infinitive form (exception: to be). To do and To have are different from Do and Have. Compare:
- Do = special (auxiliary verb, no meaning): Do you like it?
- To Do = normal verb: I do yoga in the mornings / Do you do yoga?
- Have = special (auxiliary verb, no meaning): Have you ever been to London?
- To Have = normal verb: I have a car / do you have a car?
Note: Have got = have (special) + got (normal): Have you got a car?
❸- No Do: Special verbs never use DO
I can't speak Russian (not: I don't can speak Russian)
Are you Polish? (not: Do you are Polish?)
Abbriviations used here: s.v.= special verb n.v.= normal verb S= subject V= verb O= object, adverbial, complement
Let's see how these three rules work in practice, shaping the 4 most common constructions in the language
s.v. & n.v. S+V+(O)
- I am Spanish
- He can speak English
- You live in London
- She likes Japanese music
s.v. S+ V+not +(O)
- I am not French
- She can’t speak Italian
n.v. S+do+not +V+(O)
- You don’t live in Rome
- She doesn’t like Jazz
s.v. V+S +(O) ?
- Are you Spanish?
- Can she speak English?
n.v. do+S +V+(O) ?
- Do you live in London?
- Does she like Japanese music?
Are you Spanish? Yes, I am / No, I'm not
Can she speak English? / Yes, he can / No, he can't
n.v. (use do)
Do you live in London? Yes, I do / No, I don't
Does she like Japanese music? Yes, she does / No, she doesn't
(simple rule: for Short Answers, the same verb that starts the question is the verb that will finish the answer)